The following research articles have been fully or partially funded by the ADRF.

Learning by observing: effects of multi-tasking and stress on performance in endodontics

Mohamed El-Kishawi, Grant Townsend, Peter Cathro, Rich Masters, Tracey Winning

Learning dental hand skills by observation plus hand-guidance, but without verbal instructions, can result in positive outcomes, even in stressful situations. Students in Group A learnt dental hand skills by watching a video with verbal instructions while Group B watched the same video with no instructions but with hand guidance.  Performance of both groups were similar, even under stressful situations.  These findings highlight the need to examine other approaches than those routinely used for learning dental hand skills so we have an informed basis for our learning designs.